Scatter Plots in Python using Matplotlib
Scatter Plotting in Python |Chapter 7
In this tutorial we will learn everything about plotting a scatter plot in Matplotlib using Python. We will be using matplotlib.pyplot()’s plt.scatter() to create the scatter plot in Matplotlib. You will find all the scatter plot’s python example codes in this tutorial.
Scatter Plotting also known as scatter plots graph, scatter graphs, scatter chart, scatter diagram is used to show the relationship between two sets of values. It helps in finding the co-relation between the values and also help in identifying the outliers. Scatter Plotting is used in Python for Data Visualisation. So, let us start with plotting a simple scatter plot in Python.
Scatter Plot - Python
We will use plt scatter to draw a scatter plot of simple example data in matplotlib. Create a file ‘scatter_plotting.py’ and start coding:-
# scatter_plotting.py import matplotlib.pyplot as plt plt.style.use('fivethirtyeight') x = [2, 4, 6, 6, 9, 2, 7, 2, 6, 1, 8, 4, 5, 9, 1, 2, 3, 7, 5, 8, 1, 3] y = [7, 8, 2, 4, 6, 4, 9, 5, 9, 3, 6, 7, 2, 4, 6, 7, 1, 9, 4, 3, 6, 9] plt.scatter(x, y) plt.show()
This code will create a simple scatter plot in python. We can also use seaborn style to create seaborn scatter plot.
Customizing Scatter Plots - Python
We can customize the scatter plot by passing certain arguments in plt.scatter(). Some of the commonly used options to customize the scatter plot in python are as under:-
- s - it represents the size of the marker of the scatter plot and it takes integer size. Higher the value of s, higher the size of the marker in the scatter diagram.
- alpha- sets opacity/tranparency of the markers of the scatter plot. take values from 0 to 1.
- c - color of the marker of scatter plot. Can provide color names, hexa colors etc.
- edgecolor - color of the border of the marker of the scatter plot.
- linewidth - width of the border of the marker of the scatter plot.
- marker - set different kinds of markers.
Now, we will be using the same example data to create the scatter plot. We will be using seaborn style in this scatter plot.
# scatter_plotting.py import matplotlib.pyplot as plt plt.style.use('seaborn') # to get seaborn scatter plot x = [2, 4, 6, 6, 9, 2, 7, 2, 6, 1, 8, 4, 5, 9, 1, 2, 3, 7, 5, 8, 1, 3] y = [7, 8, 2, 4, 6, 4, 9, 5, 9, 3, 6, 7, 2, 4, 6, 7, 1, 9, 4, 3, 6, 9] plt.scatter(x, y, s=100, alpha=0.6, c='blue', edgecolor='black', linewidth=1) plt.tight_layout() plt.show()
Matplotlib- adding scatter color by value- Python
We can also add scatter color by value to the matplotlib scatter plots. Let us assume that y values in the above random data for matplotlib scatter plots represent rating on the scale of 1-10. Now, we can pass a list of color having values 1-10
# scatter_plotting.py colors = [7, 8, 2, 4, 6, 4, 9, 5, 9, 3, 6, 7, 2, 4, 6, 7, 1, 9, 4, 3, 6, 9] plt.scatter(x, y, s=100, alpha=0.6, c=colors, edgecolor='black', linewidth=1)
Now, in the above scatter plot, each marker is different shade of grey depending upon the value (1-10).
Instead of using the black color we can set some other color by passing cmap argument in plt.scatter(). Also we can set the label for the colorbar using the below python code. cmap can take the following values. You can read more about color maps to have different scatter plot colors for values here.
Accent, Accent_r, Blues, Blues_r, BrBG, BrBG_r, BuGn, BuGn_r, BuPu, BuPu_r, CMRmap, CMRmap_r, Dark2, Dark2_r, GnBu, GnBu_r, Greens, Greens_r, Greys, Greys_r, OrRd, OrRd_r, Oranges, Oranges_r, PRGn, PRGn_r, Paired, Paired_r, Pastel1, Pastel1_r, Pastel2, Pastel2_r, PiYG, PiYG_r, PuBu, PuBuGn, PuBuGn_r, PuBu_r, PuOr, PuOr_r, PuRd, PuRd_r, Purples, Purples_r, RdBu, RdBu_r, RdGy, RdGy_r, RdPu, RdPu_r, RdYlBu, RdYlBu_r, RdYlGn, RdYlGn_r, Reds, Reds_r, Set1, Set1_r, Set2, Set2_r, Set3, Set3_r, Spectral, Spectral_r, Wistia, Wistia_r, YlGn, YlGnBu, YlGnBu_r, YlGn_r, YlOrBr, YlOrBr_r, YlOrRd, YlOrRd_r, afmhot, afmhot_r, autumn, autumn_r, binary, binary_r, bone, bone_r, brg, brg_r, bwr, bwr_r, cividis, cividis_r, cool, cool_r, coolwarm, coolwarm_r, copper, copper_r, cubehelix, cubehelix_r, flag, flag_r, gist_earth, gist_earth_r, gist_gray, gist_gray_r, gist_heat, gist_heat_r, gist_ncar, gist_ncar_r, gist_rainbow, gist_rainbow_r, gist_stern, gist_stern_r, gist_yarg, gist_yarg_r, gnuplot, gnuplot2, gnuplot2_r, gnuplot_r, gray, gray_r, hot, hot_r, hsv, hsv_r, inferno, inferno_r, jet, jet_r, magma, magma_r, nipy_spectral, nipy_spectral_r, ocean, ocean_r, pink, pink_r, plasma, plasma_r, prism, prism_r, rainbow, rainbow_r, seismic, seismic_r, spring, spring_r, summer, summer_r, tab10, tab10_r, tab20, tab20_r, tab20b, tab20b_r, tab20c, tab20c_r, terrain, terrain_r, twilight, twilight_r, twilight_shifted, twilight_shifted_r, viridis, viridis_r, winter, winter_r
You can use any of these colors to make your scatter plot more colorful. This surely adds to data visualisation.
# scatter_plotting.py plt.scatter(x, y, s=100, alpha=0.6, c=colors, edgecolor='black', linewidth=1, cmap='Blues') cbar = plt.colorbar() cbar.set_label('Rating (1-10)') plt.tight_layout() plt.show()
So, by using few lines of python example code we have converted our simple scatter plot in to colorful scatter plot. These matplotlib scatter plots help a lot in data visualisation. Now the scatter plot has colors as per the values.
Scatter Plot in Python from CSV
The said example data file is about the views, likes and like/dislike ratio on the trending tutorial videos. Here we will plot this real time data as a scatter plot in Python. We will use pandas read_csv to extract the data from the csv and plot it. Now I have downloaded the said csv file and saved it as ‘scatter_plot_data.csv’ and have used the following code to create the scatter plot in matplotlib using python and pandas.
#scatter_plotting.py import pandas as pd import matplotlib.pyplot as plt plt.style.use('seaborn') # to get seaborn scatter plot # read the csv file to extract data data = pd.read_csv('scatter_plot_data.csv') view_count = data['view_count'] likes = data['likes'] ratio = data['ratio'] plt.scatter(view_count, likes, s=100, alpha=0.6, edgecolor='black', linewidth=1) plt.title('Trending Videos') plt.xlabel('Views') plt.ylabel('Likes') plt.tight_layout() plt.show()
So, here you will see that our scatter plot has an outlier, as one of the videos has 40 lakh views. Due to this, the data is congested on the lower left of the scatter plot. We can either remove the outlier or instead of plotting it on the x and y scale we can plot it on the log scale using the following code.
# scatter_plotting.py plt.xscale('log') plt.yscale('log') plt.show()
Finally we can integrate the like/dislike ratios in our scatter plot by using scatter plot colors on the basis of value of like/dislike ratio using colorbar.
# scatter_plotting.py import pandas as pd import matplotlib.pyplot as plt plt.style.use('seaborn') # to get seaborn scatter plot # read the csv file to extract data data = pd.read_csv('scatter_plot_data.csv') view_count = data['view_count'] likes = data['likes'] ratio = data['ratio'] plt.scatter(view_count, likes, c=ratio, cmap="Blues", s=100, alpha=0.6, edgecolor='black', linewidth=1) cbar = plt.colorbar() cbar.set_label('Like/Dislike Ratio') plt.xscale('log') plt.yscale('log') plt.title('Trending Videos') plt.xlabel('Views') plt.ylabel('Likes') plt.tight_layout() plt.show()
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